State, Federal, & County Land

Publicly owned lands included in this category are Eastern State Hospital, military installations, County offices and facilities, and larger utility sites such as the Hampton Roads Sanitation District treatment plant. Development in these areas should follow applicable development standards listed in the charts.

Eastern State Hospital
Following is language specific to Eastern State Hospital: Owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia, Eastern State Hospital occupies 540 acres of land bordered by Route 199 to its west, Longhill Connector along its north and east sides, and New Town to its south. If this site were to no longer be used as a public medical facility, its primary uses, intensity, and Comprehensive Plan designation would need to be carefully considered and determined after the State has identified what land is to be considered surplus and by taking into consideration the Crossroads study that was done for the area.

Historic & Archaeological Sites
Places of special historical or archaeological significance should be preserved during the development of a particular site. Sites listed on either the National Register of Historic Places or the Virginia Landmarks Register are discussed in the Community Character section. Suggested activities for historic sites are preservation, renovation for original uses, adaptive re-use, or other uses which maintain the integrity of the site and surrounding area.

Depending upon certain environmental conditions, highly-sensitive archaeological sites may occur within 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) of the James and Chickahominy rivers and within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the York River. Ultrasensitive zones may occur where these high-sensitivity areas fall within the PSA.

James City County Enterprise Zone
The purpose of the Enterprise Zone is to create an improved climate for private sector investment, development, and expansion, thereby improving the overall physical and social conditions within the zone. Qualifying businesses locating within the Enterprise Zone are eligible for certain State and local incentives. Additional information on the Enterprise Zone may be obtained from the James City County Office of Economic Development.

Unlike many other land use designations, the Conservation Area designation does not easily translate into a corresponding zoning district and density. In some respects, the Conservation Area designation functions as an overlay area, relying upon the surrounding land use designations to infer the general land use, density, and zoning district for the entire development, while using the designation itself to guide the development boundaries and master plan, the intensity of development, and the proffer negotiations. Various environmental policies, such as the Natural Areas Policy and the Powhatan Creek Watershed Management Plan, also factor into development review so that when combined with the Chesapeake Bay Act regulations, resource protections can be weighed against the proposed development and density.

Comprehensive Plan densities are given in ranges, and prior to 1997 when the Land Use Map was digitized as a GIS layer, it was difficult to calculate the acreage per land use designation on a given property. Most times, not even all of the areas that qualify as Conservation Area are known and identified at the rezoning stage. Therefore, gross densities have been the standard for establishing the upper limits of the density for the site and continue to be the standard used.